Sunday, September 4, 2016

Iasos: Gateway to Caria

Photos by Jack A. Waldron
Ancient Iasos was built upon an island in the Gulf of Iasos (now the Gulf of Gulluk), and was part of the lands belonging to the Carians, who defended the site fiercely upon the arrival of colonists from Argos during the Greek Dark Ages 1100 BC - 900 BC.  However, the site of Iasos had been continuously occupied since the early bronze age, and numerous pottery fragments have been excavated revealing Minoan and Mycenean levels on the location.
Though being limited in size, Iasos grew in wealth as a result of its fishery and trade in fish, especially as it is in close proximity to ancient Euromos and Mylasa.  Pictured above, the well preserved Bouleuterion complex, which is located on the edge of the very large agora.
Many of the high walls as well as the arched entrances and exits within the Bouleuterion building are still preserved today (pictured above and below).  
Pictured below, one of the doors to the Bouleuterion leads to the Temple of Artemis Astias and the Stoa of Artemis which are located behind the Bouleuterion complex.
The Bouleuterion at Iassos appears to have between 12 and 15 rows of stone seating.  Its back wall is in a remarkable state of preservation, and displays square block holes that would have supported wooden beams for roofing, and perhaps wooden rows of seating.
If you look closely at the seating ornamentation (pictured above and below), you will notice the spectacular lion paws that decorate the ends of the rows where they meet the steps.
Pictured above, a view of the agora from the top of the Bouleutarion.  In the distant right of the photo, a colonnade of the agora portico can be seen.  Pictured below, a section of the portico sima sits along the colonnade parameter of the agora.
Inscriptions that have been unearthed from the site of Iasos are housed in museums around the world including the Iasos Archeological Museum, and have become a valuable source for historians with regard to its place within the ancient world.
I think it is safe to say that I was the only visitor to ancient Iasos on this day, and perhaps it is also safe to say, that having visitors period, is a rare occurrence indeed.  Ok, the Bouleuterion, Temple of Artemis Astias and Agora are easily accessible from the modern road that runs through the Alevi village of Kiyikislacik, but as one goes beyond these areas the trek becomes a navigation through a labyrinth of wire and stone fences, thorny bushes and steep barriers designed to pen goats, cattle and in my case, me!
Beyond the main area of the site, there are no trails to the other buildings such as the Theater, which is truly a wonderful piece of architecture, the Sanctuary of Zeus Megistos, or the various buildings, towers, or gates that can be found along the city wall that circumnavigates the island city.
Still, one could spend a lifetime investigating the main areas alone, but having spent some six hours clamoring up and down, and all around the whole island/peninsula, I can say that there really is nothing like the feeling of being the only one out there . . . , the only one who cares to spend the day searching through the crevices of ancient ruins.  Pictured below, the collection base of a wine or olive press, used to funnel the valuable liquids into jars.
The gate tower pictured here is located along the city wall, and judging by the odd inclusion of large marble blocks, the narrowing of passage ways and various construction styles, it would appear that this structure has been rebuilt on several occasion during different periods of inhabitation, or occupation.
We know that Iasos participated in the Peloponnesian War (431 BC - 404 BC), and was destroyed by the Spartans following Athens' ill-fated Sicilian Expedition (415 BC - 413 BC).  Further, it was conquered by Alexander the Great, and later by Philip V, the king of Macedon.
There are faded and worn information boards situated around the ancient city that have descended from an earlier period when sites such as this one were in vogue, having at that time been recently rediscovered or newly excavated.  Over time however, new more spectacular sites are discovered, drawing a new generation of tourists to them, and away from these harder to get to sites that tour operators no longer provide day trip services for.
Pictured above, a wall lines the Sanctuary of Zeus Megistos.  The information board pictured below comes from the Iasos Archeological Museum, which is located on the mainland about 500 meter from the site.
The Archeological Museum of Iasos is located on a path off the main road that runs through Kiyikislacik.  The museum itself is an antique structure built around a courtyard that is the location of an ancient Roman mausoleum.  Besides housing some of the infamous inscriptions found around Iasos, the museum has a fine collection of sacrificial altars.
Locating and approaching the ancient Theater was no easy task, as the area below it is still in private hands and is a maze of holding pens for goats and cows.
As you will see, the ancient Theater at Iasos is of a unique design that is quite endearing to those who make the effort to visit it.  According to text by the historian Strabo (which perhaps was an exercise in puncuating the importance of fish to the city):

"'Once a musician visiting the city gave a recital at the theatre. During the concert, a bell rang, announcing the opening of the fish market. Everybody rose up and departed except for an old man cupping his ear with his hand. The musician approached him and said, "Thank you for appreciating me and my music; for everyone else rushed out when they heard the bell ". " what?" shouted the old man, " Did the bell ring ?" " Yes, why?". " By your leave, sir" said the old man and ran out.'"
Built on a steep slope, the Hellenistic Theater appears to utilize one lone passage way into the theater, which would accommodate the residents who lived on that side.
For the residents approaching from the opposite side, a grand staircase takes them to the top of the theater seating.
The theater wall below the grand staircase is reinforced with protruding stone support columns of Hellenistic period design, displaying simplistic strength and fine stone work.
The top back of the theater also appears to have an entry way in the form of an open passage, as there is a perpendicular walled trench that leads to the back seating (pictured below).
An inscription found at the base of the theater wall that is now missing read as follows:
Found by Le Bas at the base of a wall of the theater (now missing).

Resolution of the association (koinon) of performers (technitai) gathered around Dionysos which are in Ionia and the Hellespont and those around Dionysos Kathegemon (“Dionysos the Leader”).  Whereas the Iasians are friends, kin, and benefactors who maintain . . . their long-standing goodwill and (?) . . . friendship towards the performers. . . and maintain the honors that have been given to the association of performers gathered around Dionysos by the Greeks according to the . . . oracles and by the (?) . . . Romans, our common benefactors and saviors.  And whereas they have demonstrated all possible zeal and pursuit of honor in former times concerning the celebration (?) of the contests . . . having the choice . . . zeal (?) and eagerness, and at the current. . .  time (?). . .
To good fortune.  It was resolved by the association of performers gathered around Dionysos:   In order that . . . salvation, to offer (?) to Dionysos and the Iasians for the completion of the contests held by them for Dionysos from the registered performers who are also members of our . . . synod (?) . . ., maintaining our friendship from ancient times: 2 pipers, 2 tragedians, 2 comedians, a lyre-player who sings, and a lyre-player, so that they may lead the choruses for the god according to their ancestral decrees, and to offer their services. . .  All those assigned to celebrate the Dionysian contests at the determined times will supply everything in accordance with the laws of the Iasians.  Let any of those assigned by the gathering (plēthos) who does not go to Iasos or does not celebrate the contests pay a fine to the association of performers gathered around Dionysos in the amount of 1000 Antiochean drachmas that are sacred and unavoidable to the god, unless the person was unable due to illness or bad weather.  Let such a person be excused of the fine by making a defence before the gathering, bringing forward clear proof and being acquitted by vote according to the law.
In order that the Iasians may recognize the eagerness of our gathering (plēthos) and the zeal we have for our friends in the most pressing times, ambassadors are to be chosen who, on arriving at Iasos, will deliver this decree to the presiding officials and, on approaching the Council and the People, will explain the honors decreed for them.  Renewing the existing privileges granted to one another by our ancestors, they will invite the Iasians to maintain their familiarity with the association of performers gathered around Dionysos, consistently increasing their friendship with the goodwill that existed between our ancestors.  They specified the following as ambassadors: Ploutiades the singer and player of the lyre, Lysimachos the tragic poet, and Nikostratos the tragic fellow-contestant.  The following were assigned together with their crews: the pipers, Timokles and Phaitas; the tragedians, Poseidonios and Sosipatros; the comedians, Agatharchos and Morias; the lyre-player who sings, Zenotheos; the lyre-player, Apollonios from Samos.  This was ratified when Apollonos was crown-bearer for the third time, after Menes son of Tyrtaios, on the sixth of the month of Apatourion.
Written/translated by: Harland

γνώμη τοῦ κοινοῦ τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυ[σον τεχ]νιτῶν [τῶ]ν ἐν Ἰωνίαι [κ]α[ὶ] Ἑλλησ|πόντωι καὶ τῶν περὶ τὸν καθηγημόνα Δι[όνυ]σον· ἐπειδὴ Ἰασεῖς φίλοι καὶ οἰκεῖο[ι κ]α[ὶ] | εὐ[εργέ]ται ὑπάρχοντες καὶ [τὴν προϋπάρχουσαν εὔνοιαν καὶ] φιλίαν ε[—] | [τηρ]οῦντες τὴν πρὸς τοὺ[ς τεχνίτας —]ον κα[—]νεδημον, [τη]||[ρ]οῦντες δὲ καὶ τὰ δεδο[μένα τίμια τῶι κ]οινῶι τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνιτῶν ὑπὸ | [τῶν Ἑλλή]νων κατὰ τὰς [μαντείας καὶ ὑπὸ Ῥωμ]αίων τῶν κοινῶν [εὐ]<ε>[ρ]<γ>[ε]τῶν | <κ>α[ὶ] σωτήρων, ἔν τε τοῖς πρότερον χρόνοις [πᾶσ]αν σπουδὴν καὶ φιλοτιμίαν [δείξαν]|[τες] περὶ τῆς τῶν ἀγώνων ερ[—] τὴν αἵρεσιν ἔχοντες [—] | τ[— σπουδὴν κ]αὶ ἐκτένειαν, ἐν δὲ τῶι ν[ῦν καιρῶι] || ακ[— θεω]ρήματα καλ[—]αιρ[—]· ἀγ[αθῆι τ]ύχηι· | δεδόχθαι [τῶι] κοινῶι [τῶν περὶ τ]ὸν Διόνυσον τεχνιτῶν· ἵνα [—]ιοισ[—]υ[—] | σωτηρίας τ[— νέμειν τ]ῶι Διονύσωι καὶ Ἰασεῦσιν εἰς τοὺς [συντελουμέν]ο<υ>ς | παρ’ α<ὐ>τοῖς τῶι Διονύσωι ἀγῶν[ας ἐκ] τῶν ἐνγεγραμμένων τεχνιτῶν καὶ με|τεχόντων τῆς [ἡ]<με>[τ]έρ[ας συνόδ]<ου>? φιλίας ὑπαρχούσης ἡμῖν ἐκ παλαιῶν χρόνων, || αὐλητὰς δύο, τραγῳδοὺς δύο, κωμῳδοὺς δύο, κιθαρῳδόν, κιθαριστήν, ὅπως | ἄγωσιν τῶι θεῶι τοὺς [χ]οροὺς κατὰ τὰς πατρίους αὐτῶν διαγραφάς, προσ<ν>εῖ<μ>αι δὲ τού|των καὶ τὰς ὑπηρεσίας α[—]νωνεινεδ[—]· τοὺς δὲ νεμηθέντας πάντας ἐπι|τελ<έ>σαι τοὺς τῶν Διονυσίων ἀγῶνας ἐν τοῖς ὡρισμένοις καιροῖς | πάντα παρασχόντας ἀκολούθως τοῖς Ἰασέων νόμοις· ὃς δὲ τῶν || νεμ<η>θέντων ὑπὸ τοῦ πλήθους μὴ παραγένηται εἰς Ἰασὸν ἢ μὴ [ἐπιτε]|λ[έ]σηι τοὺς ἀγῶνας, ἀποτεισάτω τῶι κοινῶι τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τε|χνιτῶν Ἀντιοχ[εί]ας δραχμὰς χιλίας ἱερὰς ἀπαραιτήτους τοῦ θεοῦ, ἐὰν μή | τις δι’ ἀσθένειαν ἢ διὰ χειμῶνα ἀδύνατος γένηται· τούτωι δὲ ἔστω παραί|τησις τῆς ζημίας ἀπολογισαμένωι ἐπὶ τοῦ πλήθους καὶ ἐμφανεῖς τὰς || δείξεις εἰσενεγκαμένωι καὶ ἀπολυθέντι ψήφωι κατὰ τὸν νόμον· | ἵνα δὲ καὶ Ἰασεῖς ἐπιγειν<ώ>σκωσιν τὴν τοῦ πλήθους ἡμῶν σπουδὴν | καὶ ἣν ἔχομεν πρὸς τοὺς φίλους ἐκτένειαν ἐν τοῖς ἀναγκαιοτά|τοις καιροῖς, ἑλέσθαι πρεσβευτάς, οἵτινες ἀφικόμενοι εἰς Ἰασὸν | καὶ ἀναδόντες τόδε τὸ ψήφισμα τοῖς προστάταις καὶ ἐπελθόν||τες ἐπὶ τὴν βουλὴν καὶ τὸν δῆμον καὶ ἐμφανίσαντες περὶ | τῶν ἐψηφισμένων τιμῶν αὐτοῖς καὶ ἀνανεωσάμενοι τὰ διὰ προ|γόνων ὑπάρχοντα πρὸς ἀλλήλους φιλάνθρωπα παρακαλέσουσιν Ἰασεῖς | διαφυλάσσειν τὴν πρὸς τὸ κοινὸν τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνιτῶν | οἰκειότειτα συναύξοντας τὴν φιλίαν ἀκολούθως τῆι διὰ προγόν<ω>ν || ὑπαρχούσηι εὐνοίαι· πρεσβευταὶ εἱρέθησαν Πλουτιάδης κιθαρῳδός, | Λυσίμαχος ποιητὴς τραγῳδιῶν, Νικόστρατος συναγωνιστὴς | τραγικός· οἵδε ἐνεμ<ή>θησαν σὺν ταῖς ὑπηρεσίαις· αὐληταὶ | Τιμοκλῆς, Φαίτας· τραγῳδοὶ Ποσειδώνιος, Σωσίπατρος· | κωμῳδοὶ Ἀγάθαρχος, Μοιρίας· κιθαρωιδὸς Ζηνόθεος· κιθαριστὴς || Ἀπολλώνιος Σάμιος· ἐπὶ στεφανηφόρου Ἀπόλλωνος | τοῦ τρίτου μετὰ Μένητα Τυρταίου, Ἀπατουριῶνος ἕκτῃ· ἐκυρώθη.
Pictured above, a side supporting wall leading to the cavea.  A curious stone block with a hollowed out square may have been used as a wooden beam support, though, blocks such as these found at other locations (such as Alibanda) were connected with other similar blocks with male and female sides, and laid out for the purpose of water transportation.
Pictured above, a skene can be seen, most likely a later Roman period addition, as Greek theaters preferred a design that allowed the spectators to enjoy the natural landscape in the distance.
Pictured below, a residential area near the theater.  Though Iasos is an active excavation site, archeologists are only present during a one month period each summer, and even then, they are focused on a small area during this time.  As this is not a unique situation to Iasos, a great many ancient sites are allowed to become overgrown with thorn bushes and soil build-up.  Once clean trails are no longer visible, and an overall neglect becomes a barrier those who wish to investigate the site/s.
Sign boards become so worn and faded due to neglect, that even those who do brave the wildness of these sites can barely dissect and discern what they are looking at without a trained eye.
Located at the top of the citadel is the Crusader Castle built by the Knights of St. John during Middle Ages.  Directly outside the Castle walls is a church dating from an earlier period (most likely Byzantine) that may have been built on the foundation of an ancient Greek or Roman temple.  The illustration below shows the layout of the structure/s.
Pictured above and below, the site of the church outside the Castle wall.
Continuing around the citadel, current excavations are underway on a Roman Villa.  Though the site was inaccessible during my visit, I was able to snap some photos through and/or over the fencing.
Though it was obvious that the Roman Villa contained mosaics that had been covered for protection, there were a number of mosaics visible further around the citadel.  Below, a mosaic of Pegasus lays exposed to the elements.
The slightly stepped area where these mosaics are exposed appears to be the location of an ancient Roman Villa; though, there are no low walls following the contour of the mosaics, but a simple organic stone in thin elongated slabs of the same charcoal color as the darker mosaic tiles.  Therefore, it may be questioned as to the purpose of these mosaics, their function, as well as the building/s, or area they were intended to decorate and/or serve.
Just below the top the citadel facing toward the sea, a more developed neighborhood and city scape appears, most likely expanded upon greatly during the Roman period in order to serve the large area of Roman Villas nearby, as well as the visitors to the city, who would have entered the later built Castle through the large Seaside Gate that leads into the Middle Age fortification.
As previously stated, most of what is understood about Iasos is a result of the numerous inscription that have been retrieved from the ancient city.  Below is a thorough translation of the so-called 'Egyptian Inscriptions', as well as a photo of the actual stone inscription, which is housed in the Iasos Archeological Museum.
For a discussion of this inscription, see R.S.Bagnall, "The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt", pp.89-90. Another treaty of the same period, between Theangela and Eupolemos (Austin_40), was confirmed with similar oaths.
Adapted from the translation by A.Ellis-Evans in "Dynasts and Kings".

[A]   . . . Polemaios . . . It was resolved by [the council] and the people of the [Iasians] . . . [(?) since] Polemaios [(?) made the city free and autonomous and ungarrisoned and exempt from tribute] . . . Machaon and [his soldiers, and Hieron and his] soldiers, and Sopolis [and his] soldiers . . . worthily . . . Polemaios . . . to Polemaios son of Polemaios . . . Polemaios will restore the citadels [and the city] . . .

[B]   And he will restore everything which was in the citadels . . . . And the provisions and pay owed to Machaon [and Hieron] and Sopolis and their soldiers the Iasians will return to the . . . of whoever was in debt to them in 15 days from the day on which those who have been sent to Ptolemaios come into his presence, and having taken back from Machaon the citadels and what is in the citadels and the city, each will make promises. Let Machaon and Hieron and Sopolis and their soldiers who live in the city and reside there according to the laws of the Iasians and are being discharged go wherever they want by land or by sea in safety. Ignore all charges these men and their soldiers have made against the Iasians and those who live at Iasos, and likewise those the Iasians and those who live at Iasoshave made in the past [before] the agreements. Let the same safety which . . . be allowed to the wife of Aristokles and the . . . of Aristokles and to the children of Molon and to Syros and to Ischyros . . . daughter and to the wife of Hestiaios and to the children and [descendants of] . . .

[C]   The Iasians and those who live in the city [swore] to Ptolemaios that, while they were [free] and autonomous and ungarrisoned and exempt from tribute, they would be allies to Ptolemaios and his descendants for all time.

And Machaon and Hieron and Sopolis and their soldiers swore this to the Iasians, and the Iasians to Machaon and Hieron and Sopolis and their soldiers. And let this be the oath for Machaon and Hieron and Sopolis and the soldiers: I swear by Zeus, Earth {}, Sun {Helios}, PoseidonApolloDemeterAresAtheneAreia {"warlike"}, all the other gods and goddesses and the Tauropolos. I will abide by the agreements which I have made with the Iasians and I will not receive a soldier from anyone for four days after that on which the men are sent to Ptolemaios, nor later without the permission of the Iasians. I shall do so without treachery and deceit. And may it be well with me and my kin who swear truly, but for the one who swears falsely the opposite of these things. And the Iasians swore the same oath to Machaon and Sopolis and Hieron and their soldiers.

And Ptolemaios swore this oath: I swear by Zeus, Earth, Sun, Poseidon, Apollo, Demeter, Ares, Athene Areia, all the other gods and goddesses and the Tauropolos. I shall preserve the agreements which the Iasians have made with Machaon and Hieron and Sopolis and their soldiers and the others who are written down in the agreements. I shall do so without treachery and deceit. And may it be well with me and my kin who swear truly, but for the one who swears falsely the opposite of these things.

And the Iasians swore this to Ptolemaios and Ptolemaios to the Iasians. Let this be the oath: I swear by Zeus, Earth, Sun, Poseidon, Apollo, Demeter, Ares, Athene Areia, all the other gods and goddesses and the Tauropolos. I shall be well-disposed to Ptolemaios and I shall be an ally, both to him and his descendants for all time, being free and autonomous and ungarrisoned and exempt from tribute. I shall do so without treachery and deceit. And may it be well with me and my kin who swear truly, but for the one who swears falsely the opposite of these things.

Ptolemaios swore to the Iasians this oath: I swear by [Zeus, Earth], Sun, Poseidon, Apollo, Demeter, Ares, [Athene Areia], all the other gods [and goddesses and] the Tauropolos. I shall preserve [the city of the Iasians . . . free and autonomous] and ungarrisoned and [exempt from tribute] . . .

[D]   . . . the neopoiai will inscribe [this decree . . .] and place it in the sanctuary of Zeus . . .

These two letters from officers of king Ptolemaios follow on from the treaty between Iasos and Ptolemaios ( Inscr_12 ). For a discussion of the letters, see R.S.Bagnall, "The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt", pp.90-91. 

[A]   Aristoboulos to the council and the people of Iasos, greetings. Your envoys have arrived and have spoken to me, bringing the decree from you, in which it is stated that your city should be [free and] autonomous and in alliance with us; when we asked [them] to provide assurances of this, they agreed to do so; therefore this point was conceded to them. They also spoke to me concerning [the contribution], that they should pay what was right for the guarding of the territory, but they should have control of the harbours and the other revenues; concerning the harbour, we have agreed with them, but concerning the contribution I decided to refer to the king, so that any disputes between us, each proposing a greater or a lesser amount, might not be an obstacle to accomplishing the affairs of the city as we desire; therefore I thought it best to write to you about these matters. Farewell.

The oath that Aristoboulos swore:   I swear by Zeus, Earth {}, Sun {Helios}, ApolloAresAthene Areia, all the other gods and goddesses, and theTauropolos. I will preserve the liberty and the autonomy of the people of Iasos, and I will allow the Iasians to receive all the revenues of the city and the harbours, but to pay whatever contribution the king prescribes. If anyone wrongs the Iasians, I will not permit it but I will come to their aid by land and by sea with all my strength. I will be well-disposed towards the city of Iasos and I will act well towards it as much as I can in word and deed, without any trickery or deceipt. If I keep my oath, may it turn out well for me; but if I break my oath, may the opposite of this occur.

[B]   Asklepiodotos to the council and the people of Iasos, greetings. Your envoys have spoken to us and requested that we swear the same oath that Aristoboulos swore. Know therefore that we have sworn an oath in these terms. Farewell.

The oath that Asklepiodotos swore:   I swear by Zeus, Gē, Helios, Apollo, Ares, Athene Areia, all the other gods and goddesses, and the Tauropolos. I will preserve the liberty and the autonomy of the people of Iasos, and I will allow the Iasians to receive all the revenues of the city and the harbours, but to pay whatever contribution the king prescribes. If anyone wrongs the Iasians, I will not permit it but I will come to their aid by land and by sea with all my strength. I will be well-disposed towards the city of Iasos and I will act well towards it as much as I can in word [and] deed, without any trickery or deceipt. If I keep my oath, may it turn out well for me; but if I break my oath, may the opposite of this occur.
 

Pictured above, the outside of the seaside gate of the Castle.  It is possible that a portion of the Castle (this gate in particular) was built during the Roman, or early to late Byzantine period (as with the Byzantine church outside the Castle wall, located on the opposite side of the Castle from this gate).  Below, looking out through the Castle gate from the inside.
Pictured above, of a notably later construction style, this portion of the wall of the Castle would appear to date from the Middle Ages.  Below, as viewed from the outside, the large Castle gate facing the harbor.
Looking out over the ancient harbor, a great tower still stands, and sat opposite an identically designed opposing tower.  Together, the towers would have been able to control traffic in and out of the harbor, as a great linked chain would have stretched across the harbor entrance, have the ability to be raised or lowered as needed.
If you look closely at the photo above, a jutty from the land opposite can be seen just below the water surface, and arrives at the place at the head of the harbor where the second tower would have stood.  Only between these two towers is the harbor accessible to deep treading vessels.  Below, a recreation of what the entrance to the ancient harbor might have looked like.
The harbor towers would appear to have been built during the Middle Ages.  The unfinished abandoned hotel on the hill on the opposite side of the harbor is not nearly as aesthetic in its appeal.
Looking down from the citadel toward the back of the harbor, the Stoa of Artemis can be seen, and must have been an important entry point for the city, nearby where the docks would have been located, busy with ships loading and unloading their cargo.
Pictured below, the arches of the Stoa of Artemis are very high, and would have supported a massive building where commerce would have taken priority over all else.  Situated some 30 meters directly in front of the stoa was the Temple of Artemis Astias.
All that remains of the Temple of Artemis Astias is its stepped crepidoma and the outline of the cella.  Though excavation of the temple is far from complete, it is safe to say that the location of the temple in proximity to the agora and mainland (long connected), made it easily accessible for quarrying, its blocks being repurposed for other construction projects.
Pictured below, a view of the ancient Docks and the citadel high above as seen from the village.  In the far distance at the head of the harbor is the Harbor Tower.
Back on the mainland, the Iasos Archeological Museum occupies the ancient Roman Fish Market, and though challenging to find, is well worth a visit.  One hopes that the ancient building that houses the invaluable pieces can withstand the next major earthquake that will eventually occur.
Pictured above, the roof of a monument that would have most likely been situated in the Agora or Macellum.  A fine example of a similar roof can be seen in the Macellum at Sagalossos.
Situated in the center of the courtyard of the museum is a massive Roman mausoleum.  When closely examined, it is apparent that the outdated technique of using cement as a reconstruction filler between the remaining monument members was freely applied without thorough questioning as to how this would negatively affect the structure and its preservation for future generations.
Cement was widely used in the 20th century for the reconstruction of ancient monuments, only to com down to the present as an additional monetary cost in its removal and subsequent replacement, newly fabricated member pieces using the same type stone, and then epoxied together as a puzzle piece.  Notice the crack in the cement reconstruction of the door in the photo below.
Newer (and more well preserving) techniques of reconstruction are being discovered all the time, especially with the coming revolution of 3D printing, and/or 3D sculpting, which will in the future precisely scan and sculpt the missing portion of any build member on demand.

*All photos and content property of Jack A. Waldron (photos may not be used without written permission)

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